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Syria began to head towards decentralization in 1971, but the real trend was in 2011, when the focus was on the decentralization and the financial and administrative independence of the administrative units. In 2021, the financial law of the new a dministrative units was issued .This study aims to derive an appropriate activation mechanism for urban governance due to its importance, especially in the next stage of reconstruction in Syria. This mechanism was reached by analyzing two global experiences in addition to the Syrian situation, besides a number of personal interviews and a questionnaire of some workers in the competent authorities. Accordingly, the researcher has put a number of proposals to activate urban governance, which include separating the powers and controlling administrative divisions to suit the limits of units, activating the neighborhood boards mentioned in Law ١٠٧, canceling the administrative and financial will and relying on subsequent judicial oversight, and accurate monitoring to implement the agenda of administrative units, and giving local councils a greater authority, especially in the field of forming partnerships with the Businesses and NGOs/CBOs/CSOs sectors according to detailed legal rules, in addition to the establishment of a central advisory agency on which local councils depend on the new issues that they are exposed to.
This study examines the relationship between foreign direct investment and its determinants in Syria, Algeria, Morocco and Jordan during the period (1990-2010), using the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag ARDL. The results of the study indicate that the PMG model is the appropriate model, as the model concluded that there is a significant long-term relationship between the independent variables (except for the exchange rate) and foreign direct investment in the study countries, and therefore it is necessary to focus on the importance of determinants and take steps to develop policies that Encourages foreign direct investment. These measures can include developing market size and making laws more attractive to international trade. In addition, steps can be taken to keep inflation rates under control.
The study aimed to identify the most important obstacles to the use of Drones in the marketing of cultural tourism, whether they are financial, legal, technical or human obstacles. The deductive approach was relied on as a general method of thinking, and on the descriptive-analytical approach to describe the concepts of research and analysis of the data collected by means of a questionnaire distributed to workers in the field of marketing in the directorates of tourism and culture in Lattakia governorate, who numbered 51 individuals, The SPSS 20 statistical program was relied on as a tool for data analysis and testing research hypotheses using arithmetic averages and the One-Sample Test. The study reached many results, the most important of which was the weak marketing activity of cultural tourism in the districts under study due to the failure of the senior management to adopt modern strategies and methods of marketing and the lack of training and qualification of human cadres to follow up on marketing developments, in addition to the lack of encouragement of management to adopt and present attractive marketing programs for cultural tourism. As well as the existence of multiple financing obstacles that negatively affect the possibility of adopting the use of drones as a modern and sophisticated means of marketing for cultural tourism, due to the lack of financial capabilities necessary to secure equipment and supplies from drones, lighting devices, cameras, computers and software necessary for its work.

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haidara kharma

has been joined in   from Syria specialize Mechanical Power Engineering


Nour Abedy

has been joined in   from Syria specialize Translation


ياسر حبيب

has been joined in   from Syria specialize Accounting

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