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Mustafa Wajeeh Al-Karkhi, Employing the Press Photo in Emirati News Sites, an Analytical Study for Emirates Barq and 24 News Sites, University of Baghdad College of Mass Communication / Department of Journalism 2022 The press image in the field of media has adopted news employment in journalistic work through media institutions, as it is characterized by features that made it enjoy the attention of those in charge of it in an effort to add news value and credibility to the event, on this we can realize the responsibility placed on the worker in the field of media. Therefore, this research came to provide a scientific description of the press photo and the mechanisms of its employment and dissemination in the Emirati electronic news sites, and what these news sites follow through the image in focus. The main objective of the research is to find out how Emirati news sites use the press photo, and to know the topics of the published press photo, what types are most employed, the identity of the source of the photo, and the news values most relied on in Emirati news sites, entitled (Using the press photo in Emirati news sites for Barq website). Emirates and 24 news), and the time period was three months, and the researcher took a regular random sample, for the period from (1/8/2021 to 10/31/2021), and the research sample consists of (1551) images, to reach the research objectives that answer the set of questions mentioned in the search problem.
The study sought to determine the effectiveness of a training program based on the theory of cognitive flexibility in developing some habits of productive mind and preferred learning methods among female student teachers, by identifying the level of habits of mind necessary for female student teachers in kindergartens and their preferred learning methods, and determining the procedures of the training program based on the theory of cognitive flexibility. To study its effectiveness in developing some habits of the productive mind and to know the percentage of the contribution of the habits of the productive mind to their preferred learning methods, so the study followed the quasi-experimental approach by designing two equal groups (control and experimental), by preparing a scale of the sixteen habits of the productive mind according to Costa & Kallick’s list. (2009) and a measure of productive mind habits necessary for female kindergarten students, and applying Felder and Silverman’s preferred learning styles scale (Index of learning style, 1999), on a purposive sample consisting of (46) female kindergarten students from the third year because they are in the intermediate learning stage according to the theory. Cognitive flexibility, as the sample represents 20% of the research population, and the results of the study revealed a low level of six habits of the productive mind in the sample: perseverance, control of recklessness, flexibility of thinking, creativity, continuous learning, and striving for accuracy. The sample’s learning preferences also varied between... Methods of processing, perception, input and thinking. The results showed the effectiveness of the training program based on the theory of cognitive flexibility in developing the necessary productive mind habits for kindergarten students. The results also revealed the contribution of productive mind habits to preferences for learning methods, as the habits of the productive mind individually predict preferred learning methods in proportion. It ranges from 31% to 64% in the post-measurement, and the six habits of the productive mind contribute together over time, as they predict preferred learning methods by rates ranging from 18% to 63.8%, with the exception of the processing style, of which the creativity habit predicted 34%. Some Recommendations in light of these results.
The study aimed to provide the procedural proposals of developing economic awareness at students of technical secondary schools in Egypt in the light of some contemporary international trends .The study used a descriptive approach through which it is possible to describe and analyze modern the international trends .The study concluded a group of procedural proposals represented in : Involving the students in managing some of the school financial affairs (such as ,managing the school cafeteria ) .Forming student social contact groups through social networks to discuss the current economic matters ,providing the school with books and references and scientific resources concerned about developing the economic awareness at students of technical education , provision of the financial corporeal support required for teachers, increasing the number of teachers, , paying attention to train the teachers and raising their efficiency, skills through holding training courses in the field of financial and economic awareness, designing school curricula in a manner coping with the current economic situation and reinforcing the economic skills of the students', including the subject of the economic education so that it can be binding to the students of technical secondary schools throughout the three –year system or the five-year system , Including the financial culture subject in all various subjects of the Egyptian Curricula, allocating one day in the school year to be the Saving Day, making plays for some wrong economic behaviors and habits spread in the Egyptian community, Organizing trips and field visits to factories and economic institutions.
BaghdadAbstractThe successive technological developments in the media industry led to its entry into a new era characterized by a straight news flow around the world, which resulted in a change in the world of journali stic art to the world of visual art. Because the press photo has taken a distinguished position and a key role in achieving the goals of the press, and as a result of the rapid development in the manufacture of patterns and in the way of transferring and processing photos. This led to the transformation of some paper newspapers into electronic ones, and the use of the image in most of the news became from a silent image to a moving picture. This is due to the awareness of the press institutions of the importance of the image in the newspaper, and the press image is the most critical pillar of the structural elements used in the output units of electronic newspapers. Because of its impactful ability and essential meanings that it carries to future, and after the emergence of Internet networks, which became the lifeblood of users. Because of the services it provides in various areas of life, and thanks to the applications. it offers that facilitate access to them, the website is one of the most essential services provided by the Internet to humans.
The question for anyone who has a statement that claims to be the first statement, that is, a statement that opens the way to wisdom and true knowledge, is this: How can the speaker -he be reassured about the truth. of his statement? So, when he claims this truth, how can he affirm with fullness and certainty that what he expresses through the words of the declaration is the substance of the truth.
The objective of this research is to conduct a systematic literature review, analyzing the influence of implementing the ChatGPT tool in the field of education. The data for this study was gathered through a systematic review of studies published sin ce the launch of ChatGPT in November 2022. Three prominent educational databases (Web of Science, Taylor& Francis Online, Eric) were utilized for this purpose. The study incorporated a sample of 18 relevant studies, and a descriptive and quantitative methodology was employed to present the most noteworthy findings. The outcomes indicate that the incorporation of ChatGPT in the educational setting positively impacts the teaching and learning processes. Nevertheless, the results also shed light on topics such as factors that determine students' attitudes toward the application, positive and negative effects, and how to ensure academic integrity when applying AI in education. Despite ChatGPT's potential to enhance the educational experience, its successful integration hinges on educators being well-versed in its functionalities. These insights lay a robust foundation for future research endeavors and informed decision-making concerning the incorporation of ChatGPT in educational contexts.
Physical properties of soil in terms of calculating the gravitational water percentage, calculating moisture in the soil, and calculating porosity by calculating the apparent and true density.
This scientific study aims to evaluate the effects of bowel preparation on the outcomes of scheduled colorectal surgery. The study included a group of 83 patients, 37 without bowel preparation and 46 with bowel preparation. Perioperative outcomes of patients were evaluated, including surgical site infection (SSI) rates, postoperative complications, and length of hospital stay. The results concluded that bowel preparation before scheduled colorectal surgery has no superiority in reducing SSI and postoperative complications (anastomotic leakage, occurrence of abdominal or pelvic abscesses), as well as shortening the length of hospital stay, and did not show any clear advantage over the patients without mechanical bowel preparation.
Enteral feeding is preferred route of nutrition support in critically ill adults when GIT function is good. Enteral nutrition is recommended method to be used when oral feeding fails, so the nutrition is delivered through a tube inserted into the sto mach. Enteral nutrition has some complications; Mechanical complications are represented by pulmonary aspiration. Pulmonary aspiration is defined as inhalation of the contents of the mouth, pharynx or stomach into the respiratory tract. So it's important to evaluate pulmonary aspiration occurrence, this may help in prevention care. This study aimed to evaluate pulmonary aspiration among critically ill patients who have Enteral feeding by using nasogastric tube. Descriptive study was performed using convenience sample of (n=15) patients at intensive care unit in tishreen university hospital in lattakia, Syria. Data were collected during the period of 16/2 to 16/5 2022. A structured questionnaire used in the study was developed by researcher, this tool was tested for reliability and validity, a pilot study was done for 3 nurses to test the tool applicability. This study results show the presence blue colure (which added to feeding meal) in the aspirated secretion in the first day at the third suction trial. This study recommended applying an evidenced based practice written protocol about enteral feeding in ICU, to decrease the incidence of pulmonary aspiration.
A laboratory experiment was carried out in the Clay Minerals and Colloids Laboratory in the Department of Soil Sciences and Land Reclamation at the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering - University of Aleppo. The research aims to know the effect of tw o types of salts (NaCl - Na2SO4) with five concentrations of each of the salts studied in the laboratory experiment on the stability of artificial soil aggregates and to know the salt concentrations that cause the greatest damage in the destruction of artificial soil aggregates. The results indicated the effect of the increased concentration of salts in increasing the percentage of aggregates that were subjected to collapse. The study also indicated that soil aggregates were damaged more by sodium chloride salt compared to sodium sulfate salt. The results indicated that sodium chloride salt contributes to the destruction of soil aggregates, especially at a concentration of 10 g.𝓁-1, where the percentage of destroyed aggregates reached about 35%. Sodium sulfate salt also contributed to the destruction of soil aggregates, and the highest value for the percentage of destroyed aggregates was (25.1%) at a concentration of 8 g.𝓁-1.

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آلاء حسين

has been joined in   from Syria specialize Translation


فواز الجمالي

has been joined in   from Yemen specialize Administration Science


Ekhlas Ekhlas

has been joined in   from Turkey specialize Biology

Last Question

تقسيم التعليم ما قبل الجامعي في سوريا

692  - - أحمد أحمد العبد الله asked   - publish in Researchers Society  

ما هي المراحل المعتمدة من قبل الوزارة للتعليم ما قبل الجامعي كوثيقة رسمية توثق ذلك؟

مرحلة التعليم الأساسي، الثانوية ، – حلقة ثانية

كيف يتم تقييم أداء نظام الترجمة الآلية بشكل آلي؟

654  - - Shadi Shadi Saleh asked   - publish in Artificial Intelligence  

يمكن القيام به باستخدام مقاييس ومعايير مختلفة. إليك بعض الطرق الشائعة لتقييم أداء نظام الترجمة الآلية بشكل آلي:

  1. BLEU (Bilingual Evaluation Understudy): BLEU هي إحدى القياسات الأكثر شيوعًا لتقييم أداء نظام الترجمة الآلية. يقوم BLEU بمقارنة الترجمة المولدة آليًا بالترجمة الإنسانية المرجعية ويقيم مدى تشابههما من خلال قياس الأتفاق بين الكلمات.

BLEU (Bilingual Evaluation Understudy) هو مقياس شائع يُستخدم لتقييم جودة الترجمة الآلية عن طريق مقارنتها بالترجمة الإنسانية المرجعية. يستخدم BLEU معلومات على مستوى الكلمات لقياس التشابه بين الترجمتين. يمكنك استخدام مكتبة Python لحساب مقياس BLEU بسهولة. فيما يلي شرح مفصل لمقياس BLEU مع مثال في Python:

أولاً، تحتاج إلى تثبيت مكتبة nltk (Natural Language Toolkit) إذا لم تكن مثبتة بالفعل. يمكنك فعل ذلك باستخدام الأمر التالي:

pip install nltk 

استيراد المكتبات الضرورية:

import nltk
from nltk.translate.bleu_score import sentence_bleu, SmoothingFunction

تحديد النصوص المرجعية والترجمة المستهدفة, النصوص المرجعية reference هيي النصوص التي تعبر عن الترجمة الصحيحة, اي دائما تحتاج إلى هذه النصوص لكي تقوم باختبار النظام, بالاضافة إلى النصوص المترجمة من قبل النظام الآلي candidate:

reference = [['the', 'quick', 'brown', 'fox', 'jumps', 'over', 'the', 'lazy', 'dog']]
candidate = ['the', 'fast', 'brown', 'fox', 'jumps', 'over', 'the', 'lazy', 'dog']

بالنهاية يمكن حساب مقياس BLEU كمايلي:

bleu_score = sentence_bleu(reference, candidate)

NIST (The National Institute of Standards and Technology): يستخدم NIST مقاييس مشابهة لـ BLEU لتحسين تقييم أداء الترجمة الآلية من خلال مقارنة الترجمة بالترجمة الإنسانية المرجعية.

METEOR (Metric for Evaluation of Translation with Explicit ORdering): يقيم METEOR الأداء باستخدام عدة معايير مثل الأتفاق على مستوى الكلمات والترتيب والأمانة. يمكن أن يكون أكثر دقة في بعض الحالات من BLEU.

ROUGE (Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation): يستخدم ROUGE بشكل رئيسي في تقييم جودة الخلاصات والملخصات النصية. يمكن أن يكون مفيدًا في تقييم الترجمة الآلية للملخصات النصية.

تقييم يدوي بشري: بالإضافة إلى القياسات الآلية، يمكن أيضًا اللجوء إلى تقييم بشري حيث يتم طلب آراء وتقييمات من الناس لفهم مدى جودة الترجمة. يمكن استخدام هذا التقييم لتحسين أداء نظام الترجمة.

يعتمد اختيار الطريقة على نوع النصوص والغرض من الترجمة. تذكر أنه يمكن تحسين أداء نظام الترجمة الآلية باستمرار من خلال تجربة وتعديل الموديلات والمعايير المستخدمة.


الترجمة الآلية

ماهي الشبكات العصبونية المتكررة؟

954  - - Shamra Shamra Editor asked   - publish in Artificial Intelligence  

الشبكات العصبونية المتكررة Recurrent Neural Network هي نوع خاص من الشبكات العصبية الاصطناعية التي تتكيف مع بيانات السلاسل الزمنية أو البيانات التي تتضمن تسلسلات حيث يتم تغذية الاخراج من الخطوة السابقة كمدخل إلى الخطوة الحالية.

في الشبكات العصبية التقليدية تكون جميع المدخلات والمخرجات مستقلة عن بعضها البعض ولكن في حالات مثل عندما يكون مطلوباً التنبؤ بالكلمة التالية من الجملة تكون الكلمات السابقة مهمة وبالتالي هناك حاجة لتذكر الكلمات السابقة.

وهكذا ظهرت شبكات RNN والتي حلت هذه المشكلة بمساعدة الطبقات المخفية. تمتلك RNNs مفهوم الذاكرة الذي يساعد على تخزين حالات أو معلومات المدخلات السابقة لتوليد المخرجات التالية من التسلسل وهذا يجعلها قابلة للتطبيق على مهام مثل التعرف على خط اليد غير المقسم و المتصل أو التعرف على الكلام.

مشاكل نواجهها الـ RNNs:

  1. تلاشي التدرجات
  • في تسلسل طويل، يتم ضرب التدرجات في (transpose أو منقول)مصفوفة الأوزان في كل خطوة زمنية. إذا كانت هناك قيم صغيرة في مصفوفة الوزن، فإن معيار (norm) التدرج يتقلص بمقدار أسي.
  1. انفجار التدرجات
  • إذا كانت لدينا مصفوفة ذات أوزان كبيرة و اللاخطية في الطبقة التكرارية غير مشبعة، فسوف تنفجر التدرجات. سوف تتباعد الأوزان في كل خطوة. و قد نُضطر إلى استخدام معدل تعلم صغير حتى يعمل الانحدار التدريجي بشكل جيد.

أحد أسباب استخدام الـ RNNs هو ميزة تذكر المعلومات السابقة. ومع ذلك، قد تفشل RNN بسيطة في حفظ المعلومات لفترة طويلة دون بعض الحيل.

مثال لمشكلة التدرجات المتلاشية:

تمثل المدخلات رموزًا من برنامج بلغة C. سيحدد النظام ما إذا كان برنامجًا صحيحًا نحويًا أم لا. يجب أن يحتوي البرنامج الصحيح نحويًا على عدد صالح من الأقواس. و بالتالي، يجب أن تتذكر الشبكة عدد الأقواس والأقواس المفتوحة التي يجب التحقق منها، و ما إذا كنا قد أغلقناها جميعًها. يجب أيضا على الشبكة تخزين هذه المعلومات في حالات مخفية مثل العداد. ومع ذلك، و بسبب التدرجات المتلاشية، فإنها ستفشل في الحفاظ على هذه المعلومات في برنامج لمدة طويلة.


الشبكات العصبونية الشبكات العصبونية المتكررة الشبكات العصبونية الالتفافية الذكاء الاصطناعي

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