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Last Research

The question for anyone who has a statement that claims to be the first statement, that is, a statement that opens the way to wisdom and true knowledge, is this: How can the speaker -he be reassured about the truth. of his statement? So, when he claims this truth, how can he affirm with fullness and certainty that what he expresses through the words of the declaration is the substance of the truth.
Physical properties of soil in terms of calculating the gravitational water percentage, calculating moisture in the soil, and calculating porosity by calculating the apparent and true density.
Enteral feeding is preferred route of nutrition support in critically ill adults when GIT function is good. Enteral nutrition is recommended method to be used when oral feeding fails, so the nutrition is delivered through a tube inserted into the sto mach. Enteral nutrition has some complications; Mechanical complications are represented by pulmonary aspiration. Pulmonary aspiration is defined as inhalation of the contents of the mouth, pharynx or stomach into the respiratory tract. So it's important to evaluate pulmonary aspiration occurrence, this may help in prevention care. This study aimed to evaluate pulmonary aspiration among critically ill patients who have Enteral feeding by using nasogastric tube. Descriptive study was performed using convenience sample of (n=15) patients at intensive care unit in tishreen university hospital in lattakia, Syria. Data were collected during the period of 16/2 to 16/5 2022. A structured questionnaire used in the study was developed by researcher, this tool was tested for reliability and validity, a pilot study was done for 3 nurses to test the tool applicability. This study results show the presence blue colure (which added to feeding meal) in the aspirated secretion in the first day at the third suction trial. This study recommended applying an evidenced based practice written protocol about enteral feeding in ICU, to decrease the incidence of pulmonary aspiration.
This scientific study aims to evaluate the effects of bowel preparation on the outcomes of scheduled colorectal surgery. The study included a group of 83 patients, 37 without bowel preparation and 46 with bowel preparation. Perioperative outcomes of patients were evaluated, including surgical site infection (SSI) rates, postoperative complications, and length of hospital stay. The results concluded that bowel preparation before scheduled colorectal surgery has no superiority in reducing SSI and postoperative complications (anastomotic leakage, occurrence of abdominal or pelvic abscesses), as well as shortening the length of hospital stay, and did not show any clear advantage over the patients without mechanical bowel preparation.
A laboratory experiment was carried out in the Clay Minerals and Colloids Laboratory in the Department of Soil Sciences and Land Reclamation at the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering - University of Aleppo. The research aims to know the effect of tw o types of salts (NaCl - Na2SO4) with five concentrations of each of the salts studied in the laboratory experiment on the stability of artificial soil aggregates and to know the salt concentrations that cause the greatest damage in the destruction of artificial soil aggregates. The results indicated the effect of the increased concentration of salts in increasing the percentage of aggregates that were subjected to collapse. The study also indicated that soil aggregates were damaged more by sodium chloride salt compared to sodium sulfate salt. The results indicated that sodium chloride salt contributes to the destruction of soil aggregates, especially at a concentration of 10 g.𝓁-1, where the percentage of destroyed aggregates reached about 35%. Sodium sulfate salt also contributed to the destruction of soil aggregates, and the highest value for the percentage of destroyed aggregates was (25.1%) at a concentration of 8 g.𝓁-1.
The research included the implementation of a laboratory experiment and a field experiment in two successive seasons, where the laboratory experiment was carried out by using columns of PVC columns, where the effect of magnetized water was tested on several types of soils varying in salinity and spread in the study area east of Aleppo (Kaskis – musharifa Al – Zakia-Rasm al-Hamis). The technology of water magnetization was applied by using a special device manufactured at the Department of Soil Science and land reclamation at the Faculty of agricultural engineering of the University of Aleppo. The device was manufactured for laboratory and field work within a magnetic field whose intensity reached (2000) Gauss. The first type of water was also brought from a well in the village of Rasm al-Hamis (2.1) dS.m-1.the second sample was also brought from a well in the village of musharifa Al-Zakiya (3.4) dS.m-1.the third sample of water used in this study was representative of the water of the Euphrates river canal (0.70) dS.m-1. The technology of using magnetized water deliberately caused a decrease in the PH values of the three types of water, a slight decrease in the values of the electrical conductivity of irrigation water using magnetized water was also observed, and a decrease in the values of the specific weight of irrigation water after its magnetization was observed in the three types of water used. Magnetization with the wash coefficient applied by the experiment (15%) contributed to reducing the electrical conductivity values of the three soils, as it was noted that the effect of the magnetization technique was of a significant nature on the soils of the Hamis sketch, where before the experiment they were classified as high-salinity soils and by the effect of the magnetization technique, at the end of the experiment they turned into low-salinity soils. The results obtained from the Rasm al-Hamis soil confirmed that irrigation water with a washing coefficient, whether magnetized or non-magnetized, effectively contributed to the washing of salts from the surface layer of the soil compared to the soil salinity value before the experiment, which amounted about (4.1) dS.m-1, as the magnetized Euphrates water contributed to the washing of salts from the surface layer of the soil by 10% increase compared to the same treatment irrigated with non-magnetized water, as well as when using the magnetic wells of Rasm al-Hamis and Musharafat Al-Zakiya, where the magnetized water contributed to the washing of salts by 19% and 9.8% more than the same transactions irrigated with ordinary water for the surface layer of the soil, and the decrease was of a significant nature. The results in the soil columns also indicated that a significant decrease in the SAR and ESP values of the three soils was achieved, and therefore magnetization had an important role in washing the sodium cation from the soil. With regard to the future leachate from the soil columns, higher values of electrical conductivity and the rate of absorbed sodium were observed in the leachate of transactions irrigated with magnetized water compared to the leachate of transactions irrigated with ordinary water without magnetization for the three soils. this confirmed the role of magnetization technology in washing salts from the soil solution, especially sodium cation. this has been positively reflected on the physical properties of the soil, where the magnetization technology contributed to improving soil porosity values. the improvement was significant in the soils of Rasm al-Hamis and as a poke and not significant in the soil of Musharafat Al-Zakiya. Moving on to the field experiment, the field experiment was designed using a completely randomized block design with (3) replications, so that the first factor includes irrigation techniques: magnetized water (M) and non-magnetized water (NM), and the second factor is the addition of organic fertilizers to the soil, which included three coefficients: municipal fertilizer (O), humic acid (H) In addition to the control treatment (C). The area of the experimental piece was 16 m2, The number of plants within the experimental plot reached 120 plants. The Maize crop was planted on 29/6/2021 for the first season and on 9/7/2022 for the second. The results indicated the role of magnetization technology in reducing the electrical conductivity values of the studied coefficients compared to the control treatment coefficients in the surface and subsurface layers with an average value of 10.28%. The results also confirmed that magnetization plays an important role in washing the Na+ ion, and this was clearly reflected in the SAR value of the soil, where the SAR value when irrigated with ordinary water was about 3.16, while it decreased to 2.79 when irrigated with magnetized water, and this decrease was of a significant nature, which in turn affected the reduction of ESP values of the soil. The results indicated that magnetization clearly affected soil cations, especially Na+, and also directly affected the SO4-2 ion, where the concentration of SO4-2 decreased by 14.4% when irrigating with magnetized water compared to the control treatment. The results confirmed the role of the magnetization technique in improving porosity values. The data pointed to the important role of municipal fertilizer, potassium Humate in reducing the electrical conductivity values, and the treatment of municipal fertilizer was statistically superior to potassium Humate, whether irrigation with magnetized water or ordinary water. Organic compound with magnetized water also contributed to improving the physical qualities of the soil, which was positively reflected on the values of the index of deterioration of soil properties compared to the control treatment coefficients. This improvement in the physical and chemical properties of the soil positively affected the availability of nutrients in the soil in general, and microelements in particular, which contributed to an improvement in the productivity values of the Maize crop, which reached its highest value when irrigated with magnetic water about 7.43 tons/h, and potassium Humate with irrigation with magnetic water raised the productivity value to 8.49 tons/h, while the treatment of municipal fertilizer with irrigation with magnetic water surpassed the rest of the transactions, where productivity reached about 9.1 tons/h in the first season of the experiment, and the productivity values also improved slightly in the second season compared to the first.
In this research, the effect of different concentrations of Lavender oil on the growth of was studied Fusarium oxysporum،Acremonium strictum and all studied concentrations showed a clear inhibitory effect against this fungus.The inhibitory activity v aried according to the different concentrations The concentrations (0.06-0.04-0.03-0.02-0.01 ml/g) ) showed 100% inhibition against A. strictum and the inhibition percentage was 64.51% at 0.002ml/g and 58.04% ،35.48% 12.9at a concentration of (0.004،0.002،0.001 ml/g) on the seventh day of incubation. The concentrations (0.06-0.04-0.03-0.02-0.01-0.006-0.004-0.002 ml/g) showed 100% inhibition against Fusarium oxysporum and the inhibition percentage was38.82% at 0.001ml/g on the seventh day of incubation. The inhibitory activity varied according to the different concentrations (0.06-0.04-0.03-0.02-0.01-0.006-0.002-0.001 ml/g) ) showed 100% inhibition against A. strictum and the inhibition The lethal concentration (MBC) value of Lavender oil against A. strictum was 0.01 ml/g And the inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 ml/g while the inhibitory concentration (MIC)and the lethal concentration (MBC) against F.oxysporum were 0.002 ml/g
The study aimed to identify the difficulties of using the Moodle platform from the point of view of members of the teaching staff at the Faculty of Education at Tishreen University, where the study sample consisted of (50) members of the teaching sta ff at the Faculty of Education at Tishreen University. A questionnaire consisting of three axes (difficulties related to members of the educational staff, difficulties related to students, difficulties related to infrastructure), each axis includes a number of items, the study used the descriptive approach, and the results showed that the most difficult difficulties experienced by members of the educational staff from their point of view The lack of conviction in the effectiveness of the Moodle platform for the member of the educational staff, and the difficulty of the student's inability to understand the study material through the platform, which came with a high degree. (Academic degree, number of years of experience, gender ) .
Brain Computer Interface (BCI), especially systems for recognizing brain signals using deep learning after characterizing these signals as EEG (Electroencephalography), is one of the important research topics that arouse the interest of many research ers currently. Convolutional Neural Nets (CNN) is one of the most important deep learning classifiers used in this recognition process, but the parameters of this classifier have not yet been precisely defined so that it gives the highest recognition rate and the lowest possible training and recognition time. This research proposes a system for recognizing EEG signals using the CNN network, while studying the effect of changing the parameters of this network on the recognition rate, training time, and recognition time of brain signals, as a result the proposed recognition system was achieved 76.38 % recognition rate, And the reduction of classifier training time (3 seconds) by using Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) in the preprocessing of IV2b dataset, and a recognition rate of 76.533% was reached by adding a layer to the proposed classifier.
This research was carried out at the Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Hama, in seasons 2020, 2021 to study the effect of foliar spray of seaweed extract on the growth and productivity of the olive tree cv. Kaisi, Where the foliar spray was applied with seaweed extract called alga 600 in concentrate of (0.5 g/l) According to treatments: A0 control without spraying seaweed extract, A1 one spray one week before flowering, A2 one spray after fruit set, A3 one spray one month before harvest, A4 two sprays (before flowering and after fruit set), A5 two sprays (after fruit set and one month before harvest) A6, three sprays (before flowering, after fruit set, and one month before harvest) with the addition of ground fertilization according to the Fertilizer recommendation. The results of foliar fertilization showed a significant effect on the vegetative growth traits, as The treatment one month before harvest was superior to the rest of the treatments with a primary shoots length average 6.94 cm, while the control was 4.75 cm, while seaweed extract had a positive effect on the total number of flowers. Where the spraying treatment before flowering and after the fruit set contract was superior to the rest of the treatments, as the average number of flowers was 203.11 compared to the control with an average number of flowers 164.19, as well as in the percentage of fruit set, as the highest percentage of the contract when spraying treatment before flowering was 3.20% and in control 2.19% The results also showed a clear superiority in the productivity of the tree, especially the treatment before flowering and after the contract, Where the average tree productivity was 37.07 kg, and in the control it was 14.07 kg It was observed that there was a significant increase in the percentage of oil for the fruits, as a treatment a month before harvest was significantly superior to the rest of the treatments in both seasons, as the highest value of the oil percentage reached 20.28%, followed by a treatment before flowering, after fruit set and one month before harvest, with an oil percentage of 20.27 compared to the control 17.17%.

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Mahmoud Naasan

has been joined in   from Syria specialize Agricultural Engineering


modar katrib

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mohammad awwad

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Last Question

تقسيم التعليم ما قبل الجامعي في سوريا

219  - - أحمد أحمد العبد الله asked   - publish in Researchers Society  

ما هي المراحل المعتمدة من قبل الوزارة للتعليم ما قبل الجامعي كوثيقة رسمية توثق ذلك؟

مرحلة التعليم الأساسي، الثانوية ، – حلقة ثانية

كيف يتم تقييم أداء نظام الترجمة الآلية بشكل آلي؟

295  - - Shadi Shadi Saleh asked   - publish in Artificial Intelligence  

يمكن القيام به باستخدام مقاييس ومعايير مختلفة. إليك بعض الطرق الشائعة لتقييم أداء نظام الترجمة الآلية بشكل آلي:

  1. BLEU (Bilingual Evaluation Understudy): BLEU هي إحدى القياسات الأكثر شيوعًا لتقييم أداء نظام الترجمة الآلية. يقوم BLEU بمقارنة الترجمة المولدة آليًا بالترجمة الإنسانية المرجعية ويقيم مدى تشابههما من خلال قياس الأتفاق بين الكلمات.

BLEU (Bilingual Evaluation Understudy) هو مقياس شائع يُستخدم لتقييم جودة الترجمة الآلية عن طريق مقارنتها بالترجمة الإنسانية المرجعية. يستخدم BLEU معلومات على مستوى الكلمات لقياس التشابه بين الترجمتين. يمكنك استخدام مكتبة Python لحساب مقياس BLEU بسهولة. فيما يلي شرح مفصل لمقياس BLEU مع مثال في Python:

أولاً، تحتاج إلى تثبيت مكتبة nltk (Natural Language Toolkit) إذا لم تكن مثبتة بالفعل. يمكنك فعل ذلك باستخدام الأمر التالي:

pip install nltk 

استيراد المكتبات الضرورية:

import nltk
from nltk.translate.bleu_score import sentence_bleu, SmoothingFunction

تحديد النصوص المرجعية والترجمة المستهدفة, النصوص المرجعية reference هيي النصوص التي تعبر عن الترجمة الصحيحة, اي دائما تحتاج إلى هذه النصوص لكي تقوم باختبار النظام, بالاضافة إلى النصوص المترجمة من قبل النظام الآلي candidate:

reference = [['the', 'quick', 'brown', 'fox', 'jumps', 'over', 'the', 'lazy', 'dog']]
candidate = ['the', 'fast', 'brown', 'fox', 'jumps', 'over', 'the', 'lazy', 'dog']

بالنهاية يمكن حساب مقياس BLEU كمايلي:

bleu_score = sentence_bleu(reference, candidate)

NIST (The National Institute of Standards and Technology): يستخدم NIST مقاييس مشابهة لـ BLEU لتحسين تقييم أداء الترجمة الآلية من خلال مقارنة الترجمة بالترجمة الإنسانية المرجعية.

METEOR (Metric for Evaluation of Translation with Explicit ORdering): يقيم METEOR الأداء باستخدام عدة معايير مثل الأتفاق على مستوى الكلمات والترتيب والأمانة. يمكن أن يكون أكثر دقة في بعض الحالات من BLEU.

ROUGE (Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation): يستخدم ROUGE بشكل رئيسي في تقييم جودة الخلاصات والملخصات النصية. يمكن أن يكون مفيدًا في تقييم الترجمة الآلية للملخصات النصية.

تقييم يدوي بشري: بالإضافة إلى القياسات الآلية، يمكن أيضًا اللجوء إلى تقييم بشري حيث يتم طلب آراء وتقييمات من الناس لفهم مدى جودة الترجمة. يمكن استخدام هذا التقييم لتحسين أداء نظام الترجمة.

يعتمد اختيار الطريقة على نوع النصوص والغرض من الترجمة. تذكر أنه يمكن تحسين أداء نظام الترجمة الآلية باستمرار من خلال تجربة وتعديل الموديلات والمعايير المستخدمة.


الترجمة الآلية

ماهي الشبكات العصبونية المتكررة؟

537  - - Shamra Shamra Editor asked   - publish in Artificial Intelligence  

الشبكات العصبونية المتكررة Recurrent Neural Network هي نوع خاص من الشبكات العصبية الاصطناعية التي تتكيف مع بيانات السلاسل الزمنية أو البيانات التي تتضمن تسلسلات حيث يتم تغذية الاخراج من الخطوة السابقة كمدخل إلى الخطوة الحالية.

في الشبكات العصبية التقليدية تكون جميع المدخلات والمخرجات مستقلة عن بعضها البعض ولكن في حالات مثل عندما يكون مطلوباً التنبؤ بالكلمة التالية من الجملة تكون الكلمات السابقة مهمة وبالتالي هناك حاجة لتذكر الكلمات السابقة.

وهكذا ظهرت شبكات RNN والتي حلت هذه المشكلة بمساعدة الطبقات المخفية. تمتلك RNNs مفهوم الذاكرة الذي يساعد على تخزين حالات أو معلومات المدخلات السابقة لتوليد المخرجات التالية من التسلسل وهذا يجعلها قابلة للتطبيق على مهام مثل التعرف على خط اليد غير المقسم و المتصل أو التعرف على الكلام.

مشاكل نواجهها الـ RNNs:

  1. تلاشي التدرجات
  • في تسلسل طويل، يتم ضرب التدرجات في (transpose أو منقول)مصفوفة الأوزان في كل خطوة زمنية. إذا كانت هناك قيم صغيرة في مصفوفة الوزن، فإن معيار (norm) التدرج يتقلص بمقدار أسي.
  1. انفجار التدرجات
  • إذا كانت لدينا مصفوفة ذات أوزان كبيرة و اللاخطية في الطبقة التكرارية غير مشبعة، فسوف تنفجر التدرجات. سوف تتباعد الأوزان في كل خطوة. و قد نُضطر إلى استخدام معدل تعلم صغير حتى يعمل الانحدار التدريجي بشكل جيد.

أحد أسباب استخدام الـ RNNs هو ميزة تذكر المعلومات السابقة. ومع ذلك، قد تفشل RNN بسيطة في حفظ المعلومات لفترة طويلة دون بعض الحيل.

مثال لمشكلة التدرجات المتلاشية:

تمثل المدخلات رموزًا من برنامج بلغة C. سيحدد النظام ما إذا كان برنامجًا صحيحًا نحويًا أم لا. يجب أن يحتوي البرنامج الصحيح نحويًا على عدد صالح من الأقواس. و بالتالي، يجب أن تتذكر الشبكة عدد الأقواس والأقواس المفتوحة التي يجب التحقق منها، و ما إذا كنا قد أغلقناها جميعًها. يجب أيضا على الشبكة تخزين هذه المعلومات في حالات مخفية مثل العداد. ومع ذلك، و بسبب التدرجات المتلاشية، فإنها ستفشل في الحفاظ على هذه المعلومات في برنامج لمدة طويلة.


الشبكات العصبونية الشبكات العصبونية المتكررة الشبكات العصبونية الالتفافية الذكاء الاصطناعي

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