The aim of the present paper is to provide a global presentation of the theory of special Finsler manifolds. We introduce and investigate globally (or intrinsically, free from local coordinates) many of the most important and most commonly used speci
al Finsler manifolds: locally Minkowskian, Berwald, Landesberg, general Landesberg, $P$-reducible, $C$-reducible, semi-$C$-reducible, quasi-$C$-reducible, $P^{*}$-Finsler, $C^{h}$-recurrent, $C^{v}$-recurrent, $C^{0}$-recurrent, $S^{v}$-recurrent, $S^{v}$-recurrent of the second order, $C_{2}$-like, $S_{3}$-like, $S_{4}$-like, $P_{2}$-like, $R_{3}$-like, $P$-symmetric, $h$-isotropic, of scalar curvature, of constant curvature, of $p$-scalar curvature, of $s$-$ps$-curvature. The global definitions of these special Finsler manifolds are introduced. Various relationships between the different types of the considered special Finsler manifolds are found. Many local results, known in the literature, are proved globally and several new results are obtained. As a by-product, interesting identities and properties concerning the torsion tensor fields and the curvature tensor fields are deduced. Although our investigation is entirely global, we provide; for comparison reasons, an appendix presenting a local counterpart of our global approach and the local definitions of the special Finsler spaces considered.

We discuss a universality property of any covariant field theory in space-time expanded around pp-wave backgrounds. According to this property the space-time lagrangian density evaluated on a restricted set of field configurations, called universal s
ector, turns out to be same around all the pp-waves, even off-shell, with same transverse space and same profiles for the background scalars. In this paper we restrict our discussion to tensorial fields only. In the context of bosonic string theory we consider on-shell pp-waves and argue that universality requires the existence of a universal sector of world-sheet operators whose correlation functions are insensitive to the pp-wave nature of the metric and the background gauge flux. Such results can also be reproduced using the world-sheet conformal field theory. We also study such pp-waves in non-polynomial closed string field theory (CSFT). In particular, we argue that for an off-shell pp-wave ansatz with flat transverse space and dilaton independent of transverse coordinates the field redefinition relating the low energy effective field theory and CSFT with all the massive modes integrated out is at most quadratic in fields. Because of this simplification it is expected that the off-shell pp-waves can be identified on the two sides. Furthermore, given the massless pp-wave field configurations, an iterative method for computing the higher massive modes using the CSFT equations of motion has been discussed. All our bosonic string theory analyses can be generalised to the common Neveu-Schwarz sector of superstrings.

We construct a system of nonequilibrium entropy limiters for the lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM). These limiters erase spurious oscillations without blurring of shocks, and do not affect smooth solutions. In general, they do the same work for LBM as
flux limiters do for finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods, but for LBM the main idea behind the construction of nonequilibrium entropy limiter schemes is to transform a field of a scalar quantity - nonequilibrium entropy. There are two families of limiters: (i) based on restriction of nonequilibrium entropy (entropy trimming) and (ii) based on filtering of nonequilibrium entropy (entropy filtering). The physical properties of LBM provide some additional benefits: the control of entropy production and accurate estimate of introduced artificial dissipation are possible. The constructed limiters are tested on classical numerical examples: 1D athermal shock tubes with an initial density ratio 1:2 and the 2D lid-driven cavity for Reynolds numbers Re between 2000 and 7500 on a coarse 100*100 grid. All limiter constructions are applicable for both entropic and non-entropic quasiequilibria.

Intersection bodies represent a remarkable class of geometric objects associated with sections of star bodies and invoking Radon transforms, generalized cosine transforms, and the relevant Fourier analysis. The main focus of this article is interre
lation between generalized cosine transforms of different kinds in the context of their application to investigation of a certain family of intersection bodies, which we call $lam$-intersection bodies. The latter include $k$-intersection bodies (in the sense of A. Koldobsky) and unit balls of finite-dimensional subspaces of $L_p$-spaces. In particular, we show that restrictions onto lower dimensional subspaces of the spherical Radon transforms and the generalized cosine transforms preserve their integral-geometric structure. We apply this result to the study of sections of $lam$-intersection bodies. New characterizations of this class of bodies are obtained and examples are given. We also review some known facts and give them new proofs.

We investigate dynamical properties of bright solitons with a finite background in the F=1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), based on an integrable spinor model which is equivalent to the matrix nonlinear Schr{o}dinger equation with a self-focus
ing nonlineality. We apply the inverse scattering method formulated for nonvanishing boundary conditions. The resulting soliton solutions can be regarded as a generalization of those under vanishing boundary conditions. One-soliton solutions are derived in an explicit manner. According to the behaviors at the infinity, they are classified into two kinds, domain-wall (DW) type and phase-shift (PS) type. The DW-type implies the ferromagnetic state with nonzero total spin and the PS-type implies the polar state, where the total spin amounts to zero. We also discuss two-soliton collisions. In particular, the spin-mixing phenomenon is confirmed in a collision involving the DW-type. The results are consistent with those of the previous studies for bright solitons under vanishing boundary conditions and dark solitons. As a result, we establish the robustness and the usefulness of the multiple matter-wave solitons in the spinor BECs.

Recently, Bruinier and Ono classified cusp forms $f(z) := sum_{n=0}^{infty} a_f(n)q ^n in S_{lambda+1/2}(Gamma_0(N),chi)cap mathbb{Z}[[q]]$ that does not satisfy a certain distribution property for modulo odd primes $p$. In this paper, using Rankin-C
ohen Bracket, we extend this result to modular forms of half integral weight for primes $p geq 5$. As applications of our main theorem we derive distribution properties, for modulo primes $pgeq5$, of traces of singular moduli and Hurwitz class number. We also study an analogue of Newmans conjecture for overpartitions.

We review recent progress in operator algebraic approach to conformal quantum field theory. Our emphasis is on use of representation theory in classification theory. This is based on a series of joint works with R. Longo.

The pure spinor formulation of the ten-dimensional superstring leads to manifestly supersymmetric loop amplitudes, expressed as integrals in pure spinor superspace. This paper explores different methods to evaluate these integrals and then uses them
to calculate the kinematic factors of the one-loop and two-loop massless four-point amplitudes involving two and four Ramond states.

We introduce a family of rings of symmetric functions depending on an infinite sequence of parameters. A distinguished basis of such a ring is comprised by analogues of the Schur functions. The corresponding structure coefficients are polynomials in
the parameters which we call the Littlewood-Richardson polynomials. We give a combinatorial rule for their calculation by modifying an earlier result of B. Sagan and the author. The new rule provides a formula for these polynomials which is manifestly positive in the sense of W. Graham. We apply this formula for the calculation of the product of equivariant Schubert classes on Grassmannians which implies a stability property of the structure coefficients. The first manifestly positive formula for such an expansion was given by A. Knutson and T. Tao by using combinatorics of puzzles while the stability property was not apparent from that formula. We also use the Littlewood-Richardson polynomials to describe the multiplication rule in the algebra of the Casimir elements for the general linear Lie algebra in the basis of the quantum immanants constructed by A. Okounkov and G. Olshanski.

In the article [Petojevic 2006], A. Petojevi c verified useful properties of the $K_{i}(z)$ functions which generalize Kurepas [Kurepa 1971] left factorial function. In this note, we present simplified proofs of two of these results and we answer the
open question stated in [Petojevic 2006]. Finally, we discuss the differential transcendency of the $K_{i}(z)$ functions.