We formulate a quantum generalization of the notion of the group of Riemannian isometries for a compact Riemannian manifold, by introducing a natural notion of smooth and isometric action by a compact quantum group on a classical or noncommutative ma
nifold described by spectral triples, and then proving the existence of a universal object (called the quantum isometry group) in the category of compact quantum groups acting smoothly and isometrically on a given (possibly noncommutative) manifold satisfying certain regularity assumptions. In fact, we identify the quantum isometry group with the universal object in a bigger category, namely the category of `quantum families of smooth isometries, defined along the line of Woronowicz and Soltan. We also construct a spectral triple on the Hilbert space of forms on a noncommutative manifold which is equivariant with respect to a natural unitary representation of the quantum isometry group. We give explicit description of quantum isometry groups of commutative and noncommutative tori, and in this context, obtain the quantum double torus defined in cite{hajac} as the universal quantum group of holomorphic isometries of the noncommutative torus.

We describe a new algorithm, the $(k,\\ell)$-pebble game with colors, and use\nit obtain a characterization of the family of $(k,\\ell)$-sparse graphs and\nalgorithmic solutions to a family of problems concerning tree decompositions of\ngraphs. Spe
cial instances of sparse graphs appear in rigidity theory and have\nreceived increased attention in recent years. In particular, our colored\npebbles generalize and strengthen the previous results of Lee and Streinu and\ngive a new proof of the Tutte-Nash-Williams characterization of arboricity. We\nalso present a new decomposition that certifies sparsity based on the\n$(k,\\ell)$-pebble game with colors. Our work also exposes connections between\npebble game algorithms and previous sparse graph algorithms by Gabow, Gabow and\nWestermann and Hendrickson.\n

Part I describes an intelligent acoustic emission locator, while Part II discusses blind source separation, time delay estimation and location of two continuous acoustic emission sources. Acoustic emission (AE) analysis is used for characterization
and location of developing defects in materials. AE sources often generate a mixture of various statistically independent signals. A difficult problem of AE analysis is separation and characterization of signal components when the signals from various sources and the mode of mixing are unknown. Recently, blind source separation (BSS) by independent component analysis (ICA) has been used to solve these problems. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of ICA to locate two independent simultaneously active acoustic emission sources on an aluminum band specimen. The method is promising for non-destructive testing of aircraft frame structures by acoustic emission analysis.

Potassium intercalation in graphite is investigated by first-principles theory. The bonding in the potassium-graphite compound is reasonably well accounted for by traditional semilocal density functional theory (DFT) calculations. However, to investi
gate the intercalate formation energy from pure potassium atoms and graphite requires use of a description of the graphite interlayer binding and thus a consistent account of the nonlocal dispersive interactions. This is included seamlessly with ordinary DFT by a van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) approach [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)]. The use of the vdW-DF is found to stabilize the graphite crystal, with crystal parameters in fair agreement with experiments. For graphite and potassium-intercalated graphite structural parameters such as binding separation, layer binding energy, formation energy, and bulk modulus are reported. Also the adsorption and sub-surface potassium absorption energies are reported. The vdW-DF description, compared with the traditional semilocal approach, is found to weakly soften the elastic response.

In a quantum mechanical model, Diosi, Feldmann and Kosloff arrived at a conjecture stating that the limit of the entropy of certain mixtures is the relative entropy as system size goes to infinity. The conjecture is proven in this paper for density m
atrices. The first proof is analytic and uses the quantum law of large numbers. The second one clarifies the relation to channel capacity per unit cost for classical-quantum channels. Both proofs lead to generalization of the conjecture.

We combine classical methods of combinatorial group theory with the theory of small cancellations over relatively hyperbolic groups to construct finitely generated torsion-free groups that have only finitely many classes of conjugate elements. Moreov
er, we present several results concerning embeddings into such groups. As another application of these techniques, we prove that every countable group $C$ can be realized as a group of outer automorphisms of a group $N$, where $N$ is a finitely generated group having Kazhdans property (T) and containing exactly two conjugacy classes.

We give a quantitative analysis of clustering in a stochastic model of one-dimensional gas. At time zero, the gas consists of $n$ identical particles that are randomly distributed on the real line and have zero initial speeds. Particles begin to move
under the forces of mutual attraction. When particles collide, they stick together forming a new particle, called cluster, whose mass and speed are defined by the laws of conservation. We are interested in the asymptotic behavior of $K_n(t)$ as $nto infty$, where $K_n(t)$ denotes the number of clusters at time $t$ in the system with $n$ initial particles. Our main result is a functional limit theorem for $K_n(t)$. Its proof is based on the discovered localization property of the aggregation process, which states that the behavior of each particle is essentially defined by the motion of neighbor particles.

The results of the spectral, energetical and temporal characteristics of radiation in the presence of the photonic flame effect are presented. Artificial opal posed on Cu plate at the temperature of liquid nitrogen boiling point (77 K) being irradiat
ed by nanosecond ruby laser pulse produces long- term luminiscence with a duration till ten seconds with a finely structured spectrum in the the antistocks part of the spectrum. Analogous visible luminescence manifesting time delay appeared in other samples of the artificial opals posed on the same plate. In the case of the opal infiltrated with different nonlinear liquids the threshold of the luminiscence is reduced and the spatial disribution of the bright emmiting area on the opal surface is being changed. In the case of the putting the frozen nonlinear liquids on the Cu plate long-term blue bright luminiscence took place in the frozen species of the liquids. Temporal characteristics of this luminiscence are nearly the same as in opal matrixes.

In $XQM$, a quark can emit Goldstone bosons. The flavor symmetry breaking in the Goldstone boson emission process is used to intepret the nucleon flavor-spin structure. In this paper, we study the inner structure of constituent quarks implied in $XQM
$ caused by the Goldstone boson emission process in nucleon. From a simplified model Hamiltonian derived from $XQM$, the intrinsic wave functions of constituent quarks are determined. Then the obtained transition probabilities of the emission of Goldstone boson from a quark can give a reasonable interpretation to the flavor symmetry breaking in nucleon flavor-spin structure.

In this note we present three representations of a 248-dimensional Lie algebra, namely the algebra of Lie point symmetries admitted by a system of five trivial ordinary differential equations each of order forty-four, that admitted by a system of sev
en trivial ordinary differential equations each of order twenty-eight and that admitted by one trivial ordinary differential equation of order two hundred and forty-four.